Change of use

Planning Permission - Use Classes

The Town and Country Planning (Use Classes) Order 1987 (as amended) puts uses of land and buildings into various categories known as 'Use Classes'

The following list gives an indication of the types of use which may fall within each use class. Please note that this is a guide only and it's for local planning authorities to determine, in the first instance, depending on the individual circumstances of each case, which use class a particular use falls into.

  • A1 Shops - Shops, retail warehouses, hairdressers, undertakers, travel and ticket agencies, post offices (but not sorting offices), pet shops, sandwich bars, showrooms, domestic hire shops, dry cleaners and funeral directors.
  • A2 Financial and professional services - Financial services such as banks and building societies, professional services (other than health and medical services) including estate and employment agencies and betting offices.
  • A3 Food and drink - For the sale of food and drink for consumption on the premises - restaurants, snack bars and cafes, drinking establishments and take-aways.
  • B1 Business - Offices (other than those that fall within A2), research and development of products and processes, light industry appropriate in a residential area.
  • B2 General industrial - Use for industrial process other than one falling within class B1 (excluding incineration purposes, chemical treatment or landfill or hazardous waste).
  • B8 Storage or distribution - This class includes open air storage.
  • C1 Hotels - Hotels, boarding and guest houses where no significant element of care is provided (excludes hostels).
  • C2 Residential institutions - Residential care homes, hospitals, nursing homes, boarding schools, residential colleges and training centres.
  • C2A Secure Residential Institution - Use for a provision of secure residential accommodation, including use as a prison, young offenders institution, detention centre, secure training centre, custody centre, short term holding centre, secure hospital, secure local authority accommodation or use as a military barracks.
  • C3 Dwellinghouses - this class is formed of 3 parts:
    • C3(a) covers use by a single person or a family (a couple whether married or not, a person related to one another with members of the family of one of the couple to be treated as members of the family of the other), an employer and certain domestic employees (such as an au pair, nanny, nurse, governess, servant, chauffeur, gardener, secretary and personal assistant), a carer and the person receiving the care and a foster parent and foster child.
    • C3(b) up to six people living together as a single household and receiving care e.g. supported housing schemes such as those for people with learning disabilities or mental health problems.
    • C3(c) allows for groups of people (up to six) living together as a single household to allow for those groupings that do not fall within the C4 HMO definition to be provided for, e.g. a small religious community may fall into this category as could a homeowner who is living with a lodger.
  • C4 Houses in multiple occupation - small shared houses or flats occupied by between three and six unrelated individuals, as their only or main residence, who share basic amenities such as a kitchen or bathroom. For the purposes of class C4, a ‘house in multiple occupation’ has the same meaning as in section 254 of the Housing Act 2004 and does not include a converted block of flats to which section 257 of the Housing Act 2004 applies.
  • D1 Non-residential institutions - Clinics, health centres, crèches, day nurseries, day centres, schools, art galleries (other than for sale or hire), museums, libraries, halls, places of worship, church halls, law court. Non residential education and training centres.
  • D2 Assembly and leisure - Cinemas, music and concert halls, casinos, bingo and dance halls, swimming baths, skating rinks, gymnasiums or area for indoor or outdoor sports and recreation (except for motor sports, or where firearms are used).
  • Sui Generis - Certain uses do not fall within any use class and are considered 'sui generis'. Such uses include: theatres, hostels, scrap yards, petrol filling stations and shops selling and/or displaying motor vehicles, launderettes, taxi businesses and amusement centres.

Before you negotiate a lease or buy a property for your business, check whether you need to obtain planning permission for your intended use, and, if so, your chances of getting it.

Disclaimer - Wales

This is an introductory guide and is not a definitive source of legal information. This guidance relates to the planning regime for Wales. Policy in England may differ. If in doubt contact your Local Planning Authority.

Read the full disclaimer here.